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Noahide violaters 'executed on the basis of the testimony of one witness and the verdict of a single judge'

RAMBAM, Rabbeinu Moshe ben Maimon Mishneh Torah

Translated from the Russian


1. Adam (the first man) was commanded six things: a) the prohibition of worshiping idols; b) the prohibition to curse G-d; c) a ban on murder; d) prohibition of incest and adultery; e) prohibition of theft; f) an order establishing laws and courts. Although we have received all these commands from Moshe Rabbeinu, and furthermore they are concepts that the intellect itself tends to accept, it is clear from the words of the Torah that Adam was commanded regarding them. The prohibition against eating the meat of a living animal was added for Noah (Noah), as it is said (Genesis 9:4): "Only the flesh with her soul, do not eat her blood." So there are seven commandments. This was the same throughout the world until Abraham. Abraham came and in addition to this he was ordered to be circumcised. He also performed morning prayers. Yitzhak separated tithes and added an extra prayer before sunset. Yaakov was added a ban on the consumption of the sciatic nerve. He also instituted the evening prayer. In Egypt, Amram was given other commandments. Finally, Moses came and through him the completion of the reception of the Torah took place. . עַל עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה. וְעַל בִּרְכַּת הַשֵּׁם. וְעַל שְׁפִיכוּת דָּמִים. וְעַל גִּלּוּי עֲרָיוֹת. וְעַל הַגֵּזֶל. וְעַל הַדִּינִים. בַבָּלָה בְּיָדֵינוּ מִמּשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ. וְהַדַּעַת נוֹטָה לָהֶן. . הוֹסִיף לְ️ אֵבֶר מִן הַי שֶׁughterֶּאֱמַר (work Maybe) "אַךְ בָּשָׂר בְּשׁוֹ ️וֹ לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ". נִמְצְאוּ שֶׁבַע מִצְוֹת. . . וְהוּא הִתְפַּלֵּל שַׁחֲרִית. . . . :
2. Noahid (non-Jew) who worships idols is subject to punishment, provided that he worships them accordingly. A non-Jew is executed for all worship of idols, for which the death penalty is due by the verdict of the Jewish court. However, a non-Jew is not executed for worshiping idols, for which the Jewish court does not sentence to death. However, even if a pagan is not executed for these forms of worship, he is forbidden to participate in all of them. We should not allow them to erect a monument or plant a "sacred tree" or make images and the like, even if it is only for the sake of beauty. בָרָה הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב. וְהוּא שֶׁיַּעֲבֹד כְּדַרְכָּהּ. וְכָל עֲבוֹ️ זָרָה שֶׁבֵּית inous @imes יִשְׂרָאֵל מְמִיתִין ω β μָלֶיהָ בֶּן βֹ βהֱרָג " וְכָל שֶׁאֵין בֵּית ️ין שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל mm mm מְיתִין ω אֵיהָ אֵין " . . וְלֹא לִטַּע אֲשֵׁרָה. וְלֹא לַעֲשׂוֹת צוּרוֹת וְכֵַא בָּהֶן לְנוֹי:
3. A Noahide (non-Jew) who curses the Name of G-d, whether he uses G-d's unique name or one of His other names in any language, is liable. This law does not apply to Jews. בֶּן נֹחַ שֶׁבֵּרֵךְ אֶת הַשֵּׁם. בֵּין שֶׁבֵּרֵךְ בַּשֵּׁם הַמְיֻחָד. . מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל:
4. Noahide, who committed a murder, even a fetus in the womb, should be executed in retribution for this death. Similarly, if he killed a man who would otherwise die in the near future, threw a man before a lion, or starved a man to death, he must be put to death in one way or another, as he caused that death. Similarly, a person should be executed if he killed the pursuer, whereas he could save the latter's potential victim by crippling one of the pursuer's limbs. These laws do not apply to Jews. . וְכֵן אִ הָרַג טְרֵפָה אוֹ שֶׁכְּפָתוֹ וּuncles לִפְunc אֲרִי אוֹ שֶׁהִèִּיחוֹ בָּרָω ω שֶׁמֵּת. הוֹאִיל וְהֵמִית מִכָּל מָקֹם נֶהֱרָג. וְכֵן אִ הָרַג רוֹ️ `וֹוֹל לְהַצִּילוֹ בְּאֶular מֵאֵיבָרָיו βהֱרָג ωלָלָיו. מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל:
5. Six illegal sexual relations are forbidden to Noakhids: a) with mother; b) with his father's wife; c) with a married woman; d) with a sister on the maternal side; e) with a man; e) with an animal. These prohibitions stem from what was said (Genesis 2:24): “Therefore a man will leave his father and mother and cleave to his wife, and they will become one flesh.” "His father" refers to his father's wife; "his mother" should be understood simply; "cling to your wife" - and not to the wife of your colleague; "his wife" - not a man; "They will become one flesh" - this excludes a domestic animal, a wild animal or a bird, since a person can never become "one flesh" with them. The prohibition against having a maternal sister stems from the verse (Genesis 20:13): “She is my sister, the daughter of my father, but not of my mother. So she became my wife." שֵׁשׁ עֲרָיוֹת אֲסוּרוֹת עַל בְּנֵינֹחַ הָאֵם. וְאֵשֶׁת הָאָב. וְאֵשֶׁת אִישׁ. וַאֲחוֹתוֹ מֵאִמּוֹ. וְזָכוּר. וּבְהֵמָה. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ב, כד) (בראשית ב, כד) "וְאֶת אִמּוֹ" כְּמַשְׁמָעָהּ. (בראשית ב, כד) "וְדָבַק בְּאִשְׁתּוֹ" וְלֹא בְּאֵשֶׁת חֲבֵרוֹ. בְּאִשְׁתּוֹ וְלֹא בְּזָכוּר. (בראשית ב, כ️) "וְהָיוּ לְבָשָׂר אֶ️" לְהוֹצִיא בְּהֵה ַיָּה וְוֹף שֶׁאֵין הוּא וְהֵ בָּשָׂר אֶ️. וְuction (ברא fixory כ, יב) "אֲתִי בַת אָבִי הִיא אַךְ א א בַת אִמִּי וַתְּהִי לִי לְular" ":
6. Noahide is responsible for the relationship with his mother, even if she was seduced or raped by his father and never married to him. However, she is his mother. He is responsible for the relationship with his father's wife even after his death. He is responsible for dealing with a man, whether minor or adult, and with an animal, young or old. In the latter case, only the non-Jew is executed, not the animal. We are only told to kill the animal with which the Jew has entered into a relationship. בֶּן βֹ ַיָּו llַּתַּת אָבִיו וַular אָבִיו הֲרֵי הִיא אִמּוֹ mm מָוֹ p. . וְיָּו ronic הַזָּכוּר בֵּין ֵּ ֵּין גָּimes וֹל וְל הַבְּהֵה בֵּין ְטַ canni ֵּין גְּין גְּלוֹלָה. . :
7. Noahide is not executed for adultery with a married woman if he does not enter into a normal relationship after she has at least once entered into a relationship with her husband. However, if she was simply initiated or had a wedding ceremony but never had a relationship with her husband, no one is responsible for her relationship, as it is said (Genesis 20:3): “Behold, you will die because of a wife who took; and she is married." When does the above apply? When a non-Jew enters into a relationship with a non-Jewish woman. However, a Noahide who enters into a relationship with a married Jewish woman is responsible whether their relationship was normal or abnormal. Similarly, a Noahide who enters into a relationship with a Jewish girl who has been initiated is stoned to death because of her, as is the law regarding Jews. If he enters into a relationship with her after she has passed the wedding ceremony, but does not enter into a relationship with her husband, he is strangled to death, as prescribed by Jewish law. However, if he enters into a relationship with a Jewish woman after she has once entered into a relationship with her husband, he is sentenced to be beheaded as if he had entered into a relationship with a non-Jewish woman. אֵין בֶּן βֹ ַיָּב ω אֵשֶׁת ֲבֵרוֹ ω שֶׁיָּבוֹא  א ω כְּχרְכָּהּ אַר oryִּבְ phֲלָה לְבַלָלָהּ. אֲבָל מְאֹרָסָה אוֹ שֶׁ This This לְה וְלֹא ONִ wood אֵין ַיָּבִין ωלֶיהָ. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית כ, ג) "וְהִיא בְּעֻלַת בָּעַל". . אֲבָל ωוּ''ם הַבָּular הַיִּשְׂרְאֵלִית ֵּין כְּ Theympaְכָּהּ בֵּין mitֹּular כְּרְכָּהּ ַיָּב. . בָּא ωμָלֶיהָ אַר שֶׁ This This לַה וְלֹא βְ wood הֲרֵי זֶה בְּ canniֶ כְּ️יumb יִ woodָאֵ opt. אֲבָל אִ itive μַל אֵשֶׁת יִשְׂרָאֵל אַilt אַר שֶׁèִּ wood μֲה הֲרֵי זֶה כְּמִי שֶׁבָּא אֵmy μַכּ* ll μַכּוּ'''ם ֲimes וְיֵהָalta:
8. A Noahide who chooses one of his maids for one of his slaves and then enters into a relationship with her is executed because of her for violating the prohibition against adultery. However, he is not responsible for dealing with her until the matter becomes public and everyone refers to her as "X's wife, a slave". When will the relationship with her be resolved again? As he separates her from his slave and exposes her hair in the marketplace. When is a non-Jewish woman considered divorced? When her husband kicks her out of the house and sends her alone, or when she leaves his domain and goes her own way. They don't have a written divorce process. It's not just about the will of the man. Each time he or she decides to divorce, they may no longer be considered married. בֶּן βֹ שֶׁיִּ️ שִׁפְה לְ woodes בְוֹ וּבָular ω ֲיהָ ֲרֵי זֶה βהֱרָג ω מִimir אֵשֶׁת ֲבֵרוֹ. וְאֵיβוֹ ַיָּו ll μָלֶיהָ שֶׁיִּפְשֹׁט μִּפְ הַèָבָר וְיֹרוּ לָהּ הָ phָ זוֹ èֵית £ wood פְּלוֹughter זוֹ זultance. וּמֵאֵימָתַי תַּר לְהֶתֵּ*הּ מִשֶּׁיַּפְרִיiment מֵ wood & וְיִפְרַω בַּשּׁוּ. וּמֵאֵימָתַי תִּהְיֶה אֵשֶׁת ֲבֵרוֹ כִּגְרוּוּה שֶׁלָּ️ מִשֶּׁיּוֹצִיאֶ️ מִיתוֹ וִישַׁלְּughter μַצְ Thenָהּ. . שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם גֵּרוּשִׁין בִּכְתָב. וְאֵין הַדָּבָר תָּלוּיִ בּוֹ לְבַד. אֶלָּא כָּל זְמַן שֶׁיִּרְצֶה הוּא אוֹ הִיא לִפְרשׁ זֶה מִזֶּה פּוְ
9. Noahide is responsible for violating the prohibition against stealing, whether he steals from another non-Jew or from a Jew. This applies to someone who forcibly robs a person or steals money, a kidnapper, an employer who withholds his worker's wages, etc., even a worker who eats from his employer's food when he is not working. In all such cases, he is responsible and is considered a robber. The law is different for the Jews. Likewise, a noahid is liable for stealing an item that costs less than a pruta. Thus, if one non-Jew steals an item worth less than a pruta and another non-Jew steals it from him, they will both be executed because of it. בֶּן נֹחַ חַיָּב עַל הַגֵּזֶל. . וְאֶ️ הַגּוֹזֵל אוֹ הַגּוֹ wood מָמוֹן אוֹ גּוֹב ️ אוֹ הַכּוֹבֵשׁ & שָׂכִיר וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ. . הוּא בִּכְלַל גַּזְלָן. מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל. . וּבֶן βֹ שֶׁגָּזַל פָּוֹת מִשְּׁוֵה פְּרוּטָה וּוּא אַר וּגְזָלָהּ מִמֶּוּוּ. שְׁנֵיהֶן נֶהֱרָגִין עָלֶיהָ:
10. In the same way, a non-Jew is responsible for violating the prohibition on eating the limbs or meat of a living being. This applies regardless of the measures, since the indication of minimum measures applies only to Jews. A non-Jew is allowed the blood of a living being. . . וּמֻתָּר הוּא בְּדָם מִן הַחַי:
11. The prohibition applies to limbs or flesh separated from a domestic animal or beast. However, it seems to me that a pagan is not put to death for eating a limb taken from a live bird. . אֲבָל הָעוֹף יֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁאֵין בֶּן ♥ βֹ βֶהֱרָג "
12. Although an animal is killed, even if one separates the two signs by which it was killed in a kosher way, as long as the animal moves convulsively, the limbs and meat separated from it are forbidden to a non-Jew because of the prohibition of the part of a living animal. . כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהִיא מְפַרְכֶּסֶת אֵבֶר וּבָר הַפּוֹרְוֹוֹוֹוֹimentן מִמֶּimes אֲסוּרִין לִבְי βֹ מִmyוּ אֵב yourself מִן matַיי:
13. All prohibitions applied to Jews regarding limbs from a living being also apply to non-Jews. In addition, there are cases where a non-Jew will be held accountable, but a Jew will not, if the non-Jew is held responsible for the limb or flesh of a living being, whether it be a domestic animal or a wild animal, of a kosher or non-kosher kind. Likewise, it is forbidden for a non-Jew to eat a limb of a living being instead of a limb or flesh that is separated from an animal that is moving convulsively, even after it has been slaughtered in the manner prescribed by Jewish law. . . שֶׁבְּ canni βֹ אֶ בְּהֵמָה וְיָּה בֵּין טְ Phot ֵּין טְהוֹרָה ַיָּין ω ָיהָ מִוּ אֵבֶר מִן הַי. וּמִשּׁוּם בָּשָׂר מִן הַחַי. וְאֵבֶר וּבָר הַפּוֹרְשִׁין מִן matַמְפַרְכֶּסֶת אַף ַל פִּ Yesַט בָּהּ יִשְׂרָאֵmber סִימָין הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר לִבֶ THEM
14. How should the noahids fulfill the commandment to establish laws and courts? They are required to appoint judges and magistrates in every major city to decide on these six commandments and exhort the people to keep them. Noahide who violates these seven commandments will be executed by beheading. For this reason, all the inhabitants of Shechem were obliged to die. For Shechem stole [Dinah, daughter of Jacob], and they watched and knew of his actions, but did not condemn him. Noahid is executed on the basis of the testimony of one witness and the verdict of a single judge. No warning required. Relatives may act as witnesses. However, a woman cannot act as a witness or judge for them. וְכֵיצַד מְצֻוִּין הֵן הַדִּינִין. ַיָּבִין לְהוֹשִׁיו inous βִין וְשׁוֹפְטִים פֶּלֶךְ וּפֶלֶךְ לָèוּן בְּorn מִצְוֹת אֵלּוּ. וּלְהַזְהִיר אֶת הָעָם. . . . וּבֶן βֹ βֶהֱרָג בְּughter אֶ️ וּבְ️ אֶ️ בְּלֹular הַתְרָה וְל פִּי ְרוֹבִnceן. אֲבָל לֹא בְּעֵדוּת אִשָּׁה. וְלֹא תָּדוּן אִשָּׁה לָהֶם: