August 11, 2017
Translated from Polish
In Zbigniew Brzeziński’s […] book The Big Chessboard, America and the Rest of the World, the key word m is “Eurasia”. control of Eurasia, control of the entire globe.
The central position on the Eurasian continent is occupied by Russia – a country that geographically belongs to both Europe and Asia, but in terms of civilization and culture, it belongs to neither one nor the other. Already at the beginning of the 19th century, Piotr Chaadayev wrote: “We have never walked with other nations, we do not belong to any great family of humanity, neither to the East nor to the West. Tradition binds us neither to one nor the other. We are as if out of time and we were not touched by the process of humanity in its development. “
According to Vladimir Pastuchow, “Russian culture is heterogeneous, combining European individualism with the Asian concept of community. Eurasianism is currently perceived too one-sidedly, as opposing Russia (implicitly part of the East) to Europe. But she doesn’t completely belong here or there. Individualism, the importance of an individual, is not as clearly expressed or emphasized in its history as in European civilization. On the other hand – community, collective consciousness has never been absorbed by individuals as completely as in Asian societies. “No wonder then that the first communist state emerged in Russia -” a product of the culture of individuals who proclaim European ideals only to build eastern tyranny. “.
General Aleksander Liebiedź, when asked by Radek Sikorski, whether Russia is a different country in Europe, replied directly that Russia is a different civilization than European civilization. This opinion can be heard more and more often from the lips of many Russian politicians. They begin to understand and express their conviction that, at turning points in history, ad hoc tactical calculations are not enough to make the right political choice for the future. They understand that the most important tendency of social development should be extracted from the history and present of Russia and that it should be helped in its implementation. Today, such a tendency indicated by many philosophers, political scientists, historians of ideas and politicians is “Eurasianism”. What is “Eurasianism”? In its traditional version from the beginning of our century it was a “retreat to Asia, Marian Zdziechowski, Eurasianism is not tantamount to pan-Asianism, as it does not think about the conquest of Asia or the march to Europe at the head of the conquered Asian peoples. Instead of expansion to the outside, he calls for internal consolidation under the slogan of a return to the East. General Liebiedź is now leaning towards this understanding of Eurasianism in his public statements. Marian Zdziechowski, Eurasianism is not tantamount to pan-Asianism, as it does not think about the conquest of Asia or the march to Europe at the head of the conquered Asian peoples. Instead of expansion to the outside, he calls for internal consolidation under the slogan of a return to the East. General Liebiedź is now leaning towards this understanding of Eurasianism in his public statements.
Currently, however, there are many currents of thought in Russia referring to the concept of Eurasia and many different schools of understanding this phenomenon. One of them is the national-Bolshevik option, the main representative of which is Alexander Dugin, a thinker who, after the deaths of Rene Guenon and Julius Evola, was considered the greatest living representative of integral traditionalism. He is the author of many books and the editor-in-chief of the periodical Elements bearing the subtitle Eurasian Review.
Holy Covenant of Objectivism
However, we still face a paradox: how can you be a right-wing Bolshevik or a left-wing nationalist? Dugin believes that the invaluable help in answering this question can be provided by … Karl Popper. In his most important work, Open Society and Its Enemies, he divides societies into two types: “open society” and “non-open society”, or “society of enemies of open society”. Popper’s vision of an “open society”, according to Dugin, is not only rationality, but above all the rejection of all forms of the Absolute as opposed to the individualism of man and his nature. The enemies of “open society” are therefore those who wish to base social life on a certain Absolute. The Absolute puts barriers to unlimited individualism,
When asked what connects nationalism with Bolshevism, Dugin answers with the question: what do Plato, Schelling, Hegel, Marx and Spengler have in common? The answer is given by Popper: they are the enemies of “open society.” Among these enemies – treated as representatives of one category – we also find fascists and Marxists, conservatives and social democrats. enemies of open society “. He writes: “This is not simply one of the ideologies hostile to such a society, but exactly its full, conscious, total and true antithesis. National-Bolshevism is such a worldview that is built on a complete and radical rejection of individualism and its central place, the Absolute, in the name of which individualism is rejected, has the most broad and most general sense. One can risk the claim that national-bolshevism supports any version of the Absolute, for any motivation to reject “open society.”
Dugin abolishes the division into left and right, into materialism and idealism. The main line of dispute runs between individualism (which he equates with subjectivism) and objectivity. No wonder then that he calls the alliance of the enemies of open society he calls the Holy Alliance of Objectivism. He believes that “the philosophy of national-Bolshevism is based on the recognition of the true exclusivity of worldviews built on granting a central place of objectivity, equivalent to the Absolute, and it is irrelevant how this objectivity is understood.” this is how the ideal of the objective order is, according to the editor of Elements, the national-Bolshevik ideology.
From occult sects to revolutionary parties
Dugin points out that today historians, describing the phenomenon of fascism, more and more often refer to the left-wing rather than the right-wing roots of this phenomenon. Therefore, he proposes a similar procedure – he wants to find right-wing inspirations in communism. There is no doubt that Marxism-Leninism was a thoroughly left-wing ideology, nevertheless, according to Dugin, there are certain elements in it that can be attributed to right-wing thought. He describes the complex of these elements as “Bolshevism.” These are mainly the legacy of utopian socialists and the legacy of Hegel. Utopian socialists, whom Marx included among his predecessors, represented a specific mystical messianism, proclaiming the return of the “golden age” in the history of mankind. Most of them came from esoteric societies and occult sects, in which the spirit of mystical rapture, eschatological visions and apocalyptic intuitions reigned. They were terrified by the evil of the world around them, which had lost its sacred dimension and which is ruled by lies, selfishness, crime and lust for money. In their opinion, the Church has degenerated and lost God’s grace (this is a constant theme typical of radical Protestant sects, such as Anabaptists or Russian raskolniks). Only the “perfect” know about the imminent arrival of the new “golden age” and, by their secret rituals and occult activities, bring it closer to its realization. The Church has degenerated and lost God’s grace (this is a constant theme characteristic of radical Protestant sects, such as Anabaptists and Russian raskolniks). Only the “perfect” know about the imminent arrival of the new “golden age” and, by their secret rituals and occult activities, bring it closer to its realization. The Church has degenerated and lost God’s grace (this is a constant theme characteristic of radical Protestant sects, such as Anabaptists and Russian raskolniks). Only the “perfect” know about the imminent arrival of the new “golden age” and, by their secret rituals and occult activities, bring it closer to its realization.
In order not to be groundless: one such person was the socialist Augusta Blanqui, who spent thirty-four years in prisons for his revolutionary activities. In his youth, he was a member of the occult lodge of the Philadelphists. Its name referred to the Apocalypse of St. John, where there is a message to the seven Asian Churches. Most faithful to true Christian teaching was the Sixth Church, in Philadelphia. In his work Eternity by the Stars, Blanqui developed the theory of the multiplicity of worlds. Already in the 4th century, such a theory was warned by the exponent of heresy, St. Athanasius the Great, who in his work Against the Gentiles noted that the multiplicity of worlds means a plurality of gods, “for it is not reasonable that several gods should create one universe, nor that one universe should be created by more than one God for the sake of absurdities,
Over time, utopian socialists turned esoteric societies into revolutionary parties. After leaving occult sects, they began projecting their religious views into social reality. The “golden age” they designed was losing its spiritual specificity and took on political features. There was a rationalization of the eschatological myth, however, according to Dugin, its roots were still immersed in traditionalist thought. There is also a second element in communism, which according to Dugin , cannot be unequivocally attributed to leftist thought, it is Hegel’s dialectic, which was later adopted by Marx. It has little to do with the rationalism of Descartes or Kant, it is rather a traditionalist and eschatological doctrine clothed in a specific terminology. Hegel’s philosophy of history is a new version of traditionalist myth derived from Christian theology. An absolute idea is – a thesis, its rejection in history – an antithesis, and its realization in the Kingdom of Heaven – a synthesis. In the Gnostic version of Hegel the Prussian state becomes the earthly Kingdom of God, the New Jerusalem. Marx applied the same scenario to the sphere of production relations.
The thesis is the primal cave society of communism, the antithesis – capitalism, and the synthesis – the communist world. So communism is the end of history, it is the era of the Holy Spirit. This Gnostic element of Marx’s historiosophy was continued especially by the Russian Bolsheviks. They grew up in an environment steeped in the spirit of national messianism, according to which Moscow – the Third Rome – was called to save the world. Under the concept of Bolshevism, Dugin understands and accepts the above ideas, while in all communist thought he firmly rejects Feuerbach’s philosophy and his evolutionism. According to his own definition, “national-bolshevism is Marx minus Feuerbach.”
Cross, swastika, sickle and hammer
In his own way, he also understands the other limb of his doctrine – nationalism. In his view, it is not racial or ethnic, but cultural and geopolitical. Representatives of other nationalities can belong to the Russian people if they recognize the idea of the Russian state. Russia, unlike the plutocratic West, is supposed to be an ideocratic state. To explore the state idea of Russia, Dugin asks us to refer to angelology. Christian tradition makes it clear that every nation has its heavenly protector, the Guardian Angel. The Book of Daniel states that Archangel Michael was the Guardian Angel of the Chosen People. Dugin goes further in his argument. In his opinion, in traditional societies, the angel played the role of the monarch. After the fall of the dynasty, the angelic incarnation may have a collective character – the angel may incarnate in the order, a social class and even a party. Dugin’s writings show unequivocally that today the Guardian Angel of Russia played the role of the National-Bolshevik Party.
The Editor of Elements takes over part of the Russian messianic tradition to modify it in his own way. According to him, Russia is the Third Rome, the only New Israel in the world, the backbone of true orthodoxy, and it is through it that salvation should come. However, from the 17th century, when the Russian Orthodox Church was split, the messianic idea was split open to this day. From then on, New Israel began to exist under two hypostases: conservative and revolutionary. On the one hand, there was the tsar, the state, and the official church hierarchy; on the other – raskolnicy, Old Believers, sects, revolutionists. Both tainted the spirit of Russian messianism and distorted its letter. The only salvation may be to reunite the broken messianic idea – the unification of the Russian order and the Russian rebellion.
This is the idea that is to lay the foundations of the ideocratic Russian state, which at the end of time is to fight an eschatological battle with the forces of the plutocratic West. According to the “science” called sacred geography, one of the authorities of which is Dugin, the angelic and demonic hierarchies have their respective geopolitical assignments on earth. When the name of the angel who looks after the liberal West is revealed – it sounds about Mammon – we already know whose 7th side it stands Russia. An ally in this fight, as the columnists of Elements constantly emphasize, may be Germany, the only country apart from Russia in which the national-Bolshevik doctrine appeared. The German national-Bolsheviks were definitely pro-Russian. in his book National-Bolshevism he wrote: “If First Rome was Catholic and Second Rome – Protestant, then Third Rome should be Orthodox.” to the West of Catholic Bavaria. At this point it is worth recalling the thought of Feliks Koneczny, who in his monumental work, together with Russia, also included Prussia among the “Byzantine civilization”.
Until now, only two forces have had a chance to defeat “open society”: fascism and communism. Dugin regrets that there was no lasting alliance of these forces (except for the episode of 1939-41), and the supporters of such a solution, i.e. The Bolsheviks remained on the periphery of political life in both communist Russia and Nazi Germany, and he blames materialists and technocrats on both sides of the barricade who rejected the esoteric and mystical elements of their ideologies, thus disarming themselves intellectually and spiritually. Dugin, however, believes in the realization of such an alliance in the future. As an inherent student of Hegel, he foresees the synthesis of these trends in the dialectical triad: Third Rome – Third Reich – Third International. Like another Hegel’s student, Francis Fukuyama, sees the end of history,which, however, will not be liberal democracy, but the National-Bolshevik Kingdom – “perfecting the implementation of the greatest continental and universal Revolution in history.”
The fifth Veda, or left-wing esotericism
The discursive mind is merely a supportive mind and therefore not of decisive importance. The center of gravity of Tradition is not only in the sphere of irrationality, but also of Inhumanity, and it is not about intuitive guesses, premonitions and assumptions, but about the credibility of the experience of a particular kind of initiation. Irrationality, which, according to Popper, is at the center of the doctrines of the enemies of open society, is in fact nothing but the axis of sacredness, the basis of Tradition. “
However, a difficulty arises: while it is easy to imagine an alliance of the radical right (conservatism) with traditionalism, how to reconcile leftist radicalism (revolutionism) with traditionalism? To answer this question, Dugin draws on the works of Evola and Guenon. On the one hand, Evola said a lot about “traditionalist orthodoxy”, and on the other, he considered himself to be an esoteric “left hand path”. Guenon, in turn, in his text The Fifth Veda wrote that in certain cosmic cycles, in the “iron age”, in the era of Kali-Yuga, traditional institutions of spiritual life lose their vitality and then the implementation of a metaphysical plan requires unorthodox ways and methods. That is why he called tantrism ” The Fifth Veda, although, as is known, there are only four Vedas. This argument is entirely in line with the Russian tradition of Eurasian thought. In 1921 in Sofia, a group of émigré “Eurasians” published their manifesto. One of its authors was Piotr Suwczyński, who, in the text Turn to the East, on the one hand cursed the communist revolution, and on the other – he could not hide his pride that it was so terrible and no other nation had given the world a great revolution so far.He noted that the revolution had brought a terrible evil, but that evil would give rise to great new inspirations that would overwhelm the soul of every Russian, regardless of whether he belonged to the persecutors or Commenting on this text, Marian Zdziechowski wrote: “The sight of a man mad with pain and in unconscious ecstasy kissing the hands of an executioner, which causes him this pain,
Traditionalism, which is an important component of national-Bolshevism, is nothing more than “left esotericism”. The irrationalism postulated by Dugin, on the other hand, should be understood not as “irrationalism” but as “active and aggressive destruction of rationalism”.
Forty-five Goebbels and Dzerzhinsky
Dugin’s ideas form the basis of the National-Bolshevik Party program. Here is a fragment of the official document of the party entitled Commandments nacbola (“nacbol” is the shortened name of the national-Bolshevik): “1. Our God is Russia, our Church is the Party; the Party must not be argued; the Party should be believed; it is forbidden to doubt in the victory of the Party; 2. The party above all; parents, wife, children, women – everything after the Party; […] 8. Forget that there are words “I want” – “I don’t want”; leave only one notion – “; […] 11. Decorate your body with party tattoos. ‘ , not paying attention to the correctness or academicity of the style […]. Everyone should become aware of what we want and what we want specifically from you. It is a question about the meaning of life. “
Dugin answers this question on five points. There is no reference to religion, no word on Orthodoxy, no supernatural perspective. The meaning of life, according to Dugin, is completely immersed in mortality: “1. It is necessary to understand the course of history; 2. It is necessary to participate in the course of history; 3. It is necessary to change the course of history; 4. It is necessary to turn history backwards; 5. It is necessary to stop the course of history. “The party leader, writer Eduard Limonov, in the text entitled” We need forty-five Geobbels and Dzerzhinsky “writes about the need to lead the regional branches of the party of strong people:” To begin with, we need forty-five Goebbels, Dzerzhinsky , Molotovs, Strassers, as you please. We need them. Even if you have to give birth to them again, find me forty-five strong leaders of the region. Then we will sweep away all the dirt from the road: both the officials and the enemies of the left and the right. Lenin could, and we can. Hitler could, maybe, and we. “
Holy Letter Fronda No. 11-12 (1998)