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Stalin introduced red vestments of Russian Orthodox clergy for Easter and gold epaulettes in the army

May 5, 2021

#Andrei Museum #Rublev #Moskvastoboy Before the coup of 1917, the clergy in the period from Easter to the giving of the Ascension dressed in white clothes (Rozanov N., archpriest. A guide for persons conducting church services ... in the Moscow Cathedral of Christ the Savior Cathedral and the Moscow Great Assumption Cathedral ... M., 1901. S. 244-245). Dressing up in red clothes for Easter happened only in the Soviet years, which had its own reasons ... Already in 1942, a new system of military insignia was being developed, and it was originally planned that the changes would affect only representatives of the command staff, but on the personal instructions of Stalin, epaulettes appeared for everyone.

It is unlikely that such a radical change in the vector of state priorities and the very national idea, which was the return of the insignia of the tsarist army, could be an accident . In this regard, one should once again read the Paschal message of Metropolitan Sergius on April 2, 1942 . (see photo), in which the patriarchal locum tenens addressed his appeal to the All-Russian flock: "Let's not forget the words:" By this you conquer". Not a swastika, but a cross is called to lead the Christian culture, our “Christian living”. In fascist Germany they say that Christianity has failed and is unsuitable for future world progress. Means. Germany, destined to rule the world of the future, must forget Christ and go on her new way. For these insane words, may the righteous Judge strike both Hitler and all his accomplices, and may he open the eyes of those who still do not want to see Hitler as an enemy of Christ. Christ is risen - and demons fall. Christ is risen - and the angels rejoice. May we also rejoice with them, celebrating the victory of Christ over hell and death forever and ever and in temporary life here on here on earth - the victory of the cross of Christ over the swastika. I. Isakov noted that Stalin “in general attached importance to the form

, and people who were terribly passionate about their service in the restoration of old Russian uniforms, found some kind of echo in it, approval. I remember how the question of introducing adjutant aiguillettes and epaulettes was seriously discussed. And this was not at the end of the war, but at the height of it. It should be noted here that in a number of works the same mistake “walks” that “Stalin introduced shoulder straps after Stalingrad” (V. Suvorov and others).
It is not so widely known that as early as Easter 1942, the curfew was officially lifted and Stalin allowed religious processions around churches with lit candles, despite the threat of Nazi air raids:

In 1942, the Orthodox Church celebrated the earliest Easter on April 5: “Suddenly, at 6 o’clock in the morning on Saturday, April 4, the morning radio, unexpectedly for everyone, began with the announcement of the order of the commandant of Moscow, allowing free movement in Moscow on the night of April 5 . Metropolitan Nikolai (Yarushevich) immediately notified Orthodox parishes of the uniform traditional celebration of the Resurrection of Christ at Easter midnight. The delights of Orthodox Muscovites, satisfied in their most cherished expectations, had no end. At 7 pm, on Saturday, in the transparent spring twilight, I went to my parish church. Still far from the temple, my attention was attracted by a stream of people with monotonous bundles in their hands. They were small parcels, carefully and not tightly tied in snow-white napkins and tablecloths. It was wise not to recognize Easter cakes and Easter cakes. An old woman who caught up with me, carrying her bundle on both bent arms, I dare to ask: “Are you going to church, grandmother?” “Yes, I’m going to church to bless Easter,” she answered. The longest queue stood, wrote Grigory Petrovich, on the sidewalk, skirting the church. People walked in pairs, kissing the shroud and squeezing into the temple, where the Primate of the Church, Metropolitan Sergius (Stragorodsky) was serving.English officers standing with lit candles . And soon the whole cathedral picked up: "Christ is risen." The festive liturgy ended at four in the morning” (Prof. Grigory Petrovich Georgievsky).

According to the information of the head of the UNKVD of Moscow and the Moscow region, M. I. Zhuravlev, 30 churches in Moscow were visited on Easter night by 75 thousand people. Another 85 thousand came to the region. Most of the people in Kolomna - 2500 people, the village of Zhelezo-Nikolovskoye - 2200, a little less in Kashira, Podolsk, Mozhaisk, in the villages of Zachatie and Zyatkovo. The Chekists report to the top that the people mostly thank the government, although there are dissatisfied people like the surgeon Rosen, who said: “I am especially outraged by the appearance of some photographers in the holy altar of our churches. Damn, what does that look like! It's not a theatre. This was never allowed, even for believing photographers. Now notorious atheists are standing at the throne of God with their watering cans. There are also quite bad statements: “I used to say and now I will say that with the onset of spring the Germans will defeat us and there will be no Soviet power in our country. Our rulers already felt that they did not have long to reign, so they began to fake to the masses .

Unique footage of the Easter service on April 25, 1943, in the second year of the Great Patriotic War, conducted by Metropolitan Nikolai (Yarushevich) of Kiev and Galicia in the Moscow Church of the Transfiguration of the Lord in Preobrazhensky (see photo in red Easter vestments). The sermon of Metropolitan Nikolai (Yarushevich) on Easter 1943 was, by the first official decision of the authorities , captured on documentary video footage, for the first time #Rublev Museumposted on the Internet on our museum video channel!

An archive video shows wounded soldiers during the consecration of Easter cakes and Easter in the Epiphany Cathedral in Moscow. On the eve of Easter, a revival began in Moscow. Previously, the shops sold Easter cakes (according to the coupons of white bread). It was reported on the radio that on Easter night the state of siege would be lifted, and it would be possible to walk all night without passes. A rumor also began to circulate that Mikhailov, Kozlovsky and Lemeshev would sing in the cathedral on Yelokhovskaya Square. And so - tens of thousands of people decided to go to church. Before Easter, another rumor appeared that, they say, “several cases of ritual murder of Orthodox children were revealed” ...

As the doctor Sofya Borisovna Skopina, the sister of cameraman Vikhirev, recalled, “I decided with my friend to go to Elokhovskaya. They arrived at 8 o'clock. evenings. A lot of young people, some mothers came with children. Lots of military. The people even sat on the cross with the image of Christ - in a word, like at a football match. It was so stifling that the columns flowed. Candles, which were passed from hand to hand, curled up into spirals. There was a small queue to the side to sanctify Easter cakes and eggs. At 11 o'clock the priest came out and announced that " our friends - the British will arrive ":

In the same year, on January 6, the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR "On the introduction of new insignia for the personnel of the Red Army" was signed, which said "to satisfy the petition of the People's Commissariat of Defense and introduce, instead of the existing ones, new insignia - shoulder straps for the personnel of the Red Army . " On January 15, 1943, the People's Commissar of Defense issues order No. 25, which specifies the shape, colors, sizes of shoulder straps, insignia and emblems of the military branches on shoulder straps. They took galloon and field shoulder straps of the tsarist army as a basis , and in order to revive the technology for making gold ribbons, they found old masters :

in Kuntsevo Stalingathered a meeting in which G.M. Malenkov and L.P. Beria (Odintsov M.I. Russian patriarchs of the twentieth century. The fate of the Fatherland and the Church on the pages of archival documents. M., 1999. S. 283–291). At the meeting, where it was decided to hold a meeting between Stalin and the hierarchy of the Church, was attended by Colonel of the NKGB G.G. Karpov, shortly before that, seconded from the headquarters of partisan detachments in Ukraine and appointed head of the department for monitoring the activities of religious organizations. Immediately from Stalin's office, Colonel G.G. Karpov called Metropolitan Sergius to invite him to a meeting. Late in the evening of the same day, a black government limousine drove into the Trinity Gates of the Kremlin, in which were the Locum Tenens of the Patriarchal Throne, Met. Sergius (Stragorodsky), Met. Alexy (Simansky) and Met. Nikolai (Yarushevich).
"At the end of the conversation, Metropolitan [Sergiy] was terribly tired [...] Stalin, taking the metropolitan by the arm, carefully, like a real subdeacon, led him down the stairs and said the following phrase in parting: “Vladyka! 107) In the victorious 1945, Bishop Veniamin (Fedchenkov), from the cell-attendant of the by then late Patriarch Sergius, Archimandrite John (Razumov), wrote down the details of that memorable meeting in the Kremlin: “Metropolitan Sergius, having returned from I.V. in a half voice, he says: - How kind he is! .. How kind he is! .. - This is how he thought and spoke

about Stalin
I'm talking about. John: “Didn’t you think to ask Vladyka: ‘After all, he is an unbeliever’?”
- Asked!
- And what did Metropolitan Sergius answer you?
– Do you know, John, what I think: whoever is kind, God lives in his soul!
... I convey the exact words of Metropolitan Sergius. And he was the smartest person. And he didn't use words. Nor do I think that Fr. John: you can’t imagine this… Then we should also think about it… After that, I read in the third epistle of St. John, “the apostle of love”, his following words: “ He who does good is from God; but he who does evil has not seen God! " Marvelous! After all, this literally coincides with the words of Metropolitan Sergius ! .. ”(Metropolitan Veniamin (Fedchenkov). Notes of the Bishop. Compiled by S.V. Fomin. M. 2002. P. 346):

For more than 30 years, the artist Pavel Dmitrievich Korin (1892–1967) worked on the draft of the painting “Requiem. Rus' is leaving. He created a whole gallery of portraits, but never started painting a large canvas, the size of which was supposed to reach 40 square meters. m - almost as much as the "Appearance of Christ to the People" by Alexander Ivanov. The real prototypes of the characters in the painting, including the saints of the Russian Church, beggars, monks who came to say goodbye to their Patriarch, were transformed on the artist’s canvases into tragic symbols of historical collisions in Russian history of the 20th century.

On the sketch for the Requiem (see photo), which was being worked on from 1935 to 1959, the famous artist Pavel Dmitrievich Korin placed Patriarch Sergius, who was first elected in 1943, in the very center, using for the image a 244 x 137 sketch created back in 1937 (see photo). P.D. Korin near the study "Metropolitan Sergius". 1943. Korin only rewrote the patriarchal robe and headdress, changing it to the patriarchal cockle. It is noteworthy that the mantle of Patriarch Sergius is red, which was first installed on Easter on April 5, 1942 (see photo in the Epiphany Cathedral). The red color of the liturgical vestments of Metropolitan Tryphon (Turkestanov) and the living and dead patriarchs of the 20th century standing behind him, starting with Patriarch Tikhon

(Belavina), clearly shows the viewer that this is a festive Easter service in the Assumption Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin: Korin P.D. Father Sergius Uspensky senior. 1929. 142 x 75. State Tretyakov Gallery. For reference : “Exactly at midnight, the Holy of Holies is brightly illuminated - the altar that transforms the sky, and from there, the news of the Resurrected is heard, still distant, the news of the Resurrected: “Thy Resurrection, Christ the Savior, the angels sing in heaven ...” The royal doors open, and from the altar, in shining silver robes

, go out to the pulpit and go down the steps - the rector with a cross and a three-candlestick, the priests with the Gospel and the image of the Resurrection and the deacon with a tall candle and a shiny censer. The singers and all the people enthusiastically pick up: “And us, “and the earth, praise Thee with pure hearts.” Church doors open, and all this triumphant wave, following the icons, shining with silver, and the clergy, pours into the brightly lit church, and all corners of the temple are quickly filled. The temple is on fire from chandeliers and many candles. All the royal doors in the altars are open, the altars are shining with light. Priests dressed in festive robes, go to incense around the temple, and with a merry recitative rushes from the choir: “Let us cleanse our feelings and see the unapproachable light of the Resurrection of Christ shining and rejoice ...”. The priest joyfully and loudly proclaims to the people the repeated: “Christ is Risen!” A strong heartfelt rumble rushes from everywhere in response: "Truly Risen!". Here flash blue, green, pinkish robes among the people on every song of the canon. Bright morning passes quickly. Everything rejoices and triumphs. The christening begins ... The choir is already calling to this touching moment: “... and let us hug each other, brethren, and forgive those who hate us all by the Resurrection, and so let us cry out: “Christ is risen from the dead, trampling death by death ...” (Easter April 17, 1921 // ZhMP. No. 5. M., 1948 ) .

"Priests in blue brocade vestments quickly walk along the solea, performing censing. Thus, at the dawn of the Mysterious Day, the myrrh-bearing woman hurried from the Life-Giving Sepulcher to rejoice the apostles with amazing news. The priest raises over the people a three-candlestick with an altar cross. "Christ is Risen!" - he proclaims to those who pray in a grand manner. And immediately, shaking the air, an enthusiastic answer sounds from thousands of lips, “Truly Risen!” (ZHMP. No. 4. M., 1949).

There is a custom according to which the clergy, before going out to burn incense, change their clothes as a sign of joy about the Resurrected Lord ... Red coloreggs remind believers that the new eternal Christian life was acquired by the priceless Most Pure Blood of the Lord Jesus Christ ”(Georgievsky A.I., Associate Professor. Easter Service // ZhMP. No. 4. M., 1953).

The practice of using red liturgical vestments in the Soviet years was vividly reflected in the service of Archim. Tavrion (Batozsky). After his release from exile and enrollment in the clergy of the Perm Cathedral, Archim. Tavrion († 08/13/1978) during the service changed clothes several times in clothes of different colors: he began the service in a phelonion of the traditional color (yellow or blue); this color of vestments at the liturgy of those announced by Fr. Tavrion reflected the main theme of the holiday of this day. Before the anaphora, he dressed in a red phelonion, and before communion he put on a white one (Kostina V.S. By my God I will pass the wall: The feat of confession by Archimandrite Tavrion (Batozsky). Perm, 2010, p. 120).

Usually priests change chasubles during the Liturgy only on Pascha. And Archim. Tavrion every Liturgy was Pascha...