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Mao's replacement Xiaoping admitted that multipolarism was a cover for Soviet unipolarity

Deng Xiaoping's firm belief and strategic thinking in his later years


December 19, 2014 09:48 Source: People's Daily Online - Communist Party of China News Network Watch the news on mobile phone

Forward-looking strategic thinking

In May 1989, when talking with the comrades in charge of the Central Committee, Deng Xiaoping focused on the core content of strategic thinking: "Look at the world, the future, the present, and all aspects"; "The vision should be very broad, and the mind should be very broad." (" Selected Ortary of Deng Xiaoping, Volume 3, pp. 298 and 299.) In the next few years, he continued to use this strategic thinking, look at the essence of the phenomenon, grasp the overall situation from the part, look ahead from the reality, and carefully plan and think about the overall, long-term and fundamental issues, laying a solid political foundation for the cause of the Party and the country in the right direction.

(1) Judging the world trend from a grand international perspective

The judgment of the international situation directly affects the formulation of China's domestic and foreign policies and is related to the future and destiny of socialism. In his later years, Deng Xiaoping insisted on insight into the development trend of the world with a broad and grand vision, and formulated China's response and development strategy with strategic thinking based on the situation, moving in response to the situation, and taking advantage of the trend.

Deng Xiaoping dialectically analyzed the complex international situation after the dramatic changes in Shandong, and believed that the international situation could not be bad for China. There was no need to regard the international situation as a dark one, and don't think that we are in a disadvantageous position. There are contradictions available to China, and there are also favorable conditions and opportunities for China. The key is to be good at grasping it. See Deng Xiaoping's Selected Estals, Volume 3, page 354.)

In early 1990, before the collapse of the Soviet Union, Deng Xiaoping predicted that the monopoly of all international affairs by the United States and the Soviet Union would change, and the world pattern might become multipolar. In order to avoid a unique world pattern, create a good international environment for China, and maintain world peace and stability, he proposed to correctly judge China's position in the multipolar world pattern. He said, "The so-called multi-polar, China is one-polar." Selected Osts of Deng Xiaoping, Volume 3, page 353.)


In addition, Deng Xiaoping especially proposed in his later years that we should keep a low profile and not be a leader. His deep intention is not to make enemies, to avoid leading the target to himself and ignite himself; it is to win more friends and supporters in the world, so that our country is in a position to be in a superior position as a whole.

In the 1980s and 1990s, Deng Xiaoping made a judgment on the terical international political situation: there may be two Cold Wars after the end of the old Cold War. One is aimed at the whole South and the Third World, and the other is aimed at socialism. Western countries will not only fight a world war without smoke, peacefully evolve socialist countries, and spoil socialist countries, but also constantly interfere and sanction China under the pretext of human rights and the unreasonable and illegality of the socialist system. In this case, we must not show weakness. We must adhere to independence, maintain the image of us not believing in evil and not afraid of ghosts, safeguard the interests, sovereignty and territorial integrity of our country, and always put the sovereignty and security of the country first.

Holding high the banner of peace and taking the road of peaceful development is an important topic repeatedly emphasized by Deng Xiaoping in his later years. In the mid-1980s, in the face of international public opinion about China's "beliciger", he said: "From a political point of view, I can clearly affirm the view that China is now a force to maintain world peace and stability, not a destructive force. The stronger China's development, the more reliable world peace will be." Selected Osted By Deng Xiaoping, Volume 3, page 104.) With the sharp contrast of such "two forces", he clearly pointed out that the development path taken by China is a completely different and peaceful development path from the previous "destructive forces". In his later years, he pointed out many times that China should prove to the world that socialism with Chinese characteristics is a socialism that continuously develops productive forces and a socialism that advocates peace. China should safeguard its own interests, sovereignty and territorial integrity. China also believes that socialist countries cannot infringe on the interests, sovereignty and territory of other countries. Selected Ortary of Deng Xiaoping, Volume 3, pp. 328-329.) Today, in the face of various remarks such as "China Threat Theory", "National Power must dominate" and "Emerging powers are bound to have confrontation and conflict with the major powers of defense", we have a deeper understanding of his profound intention and strategic foresight.

In Deng Xiaoping's later years, the trend of world economic integration and globalization became more rapid. How to conform to this trend, occupy a favorable position in the fierce international competition, catch up with and eventually lead the trend of the times is an important issue for him to think about. In the early 1990s, on the basis of summarizing the successful experience of the four special economic zones, he further proposed to open up to the outside world with a bolder and more proactive attitude, to improve the level of opening up to the outside world, and deepen the level of opening up to the outside world; to move from the primary opening of "three to one supplement" to finance, commerce, trade, information, The opening up of tertiary industries such as technology; opening up Shanghai, China's most important economic center; proposing that China should achieve an international position in finance. When planning and designing Shanghai's future development goals, we should build Shanghai into China's financial and trade center, such as New York, Chicago, San Francisco and London and Frankfurt in Europe, representing China's dialogue with the world. He also said that from the day of development, Pudong should consider actively participating in international economic cooperation and competition, working in accordance with international rules and practices, and attracting international capital to Shanghai.

As a strategist, Deng Xiaoping is well aware of the importance of gaining and grasping the initiative of development and occupying commanding heights. He clearly sees that in today's world, science and technology and education are the commanding heights. If the economy develops faster, we must rely on science and technology and education." Selected Odis of Deng Xiaoping, Volume 3, page 377.) Only when we have an advantage in knowledge and scientific and technological innovation can we take the initiative in future development. If a backward country seizes the opportunity of scientific and technological development, it can also catch up. If you miss it, you will be thrown further back in the short term. When he visited various places in his later years, he repeatedly demonstrated the view that "science and technology is the first productive force" with scientific and technological personnel, repeatedly stressed that China must develop its own high-tech and occupy a place in the world's high-tech field, and proposed that "the higher the science and technology, the better, the newer the better." (" Deng Xiaoping's Selected Osts, Volume 3, page 378.)

Today, in the international environment of the in-depth development of economic globalization, the scientific and technological revolution, and the international environment where all countries are trying to seize new commanding heights of international competition, we can better understand Deng Xiaoping's intentions, wisdom and courage.

(2) Open-minded, observe and deal with major international and domestic issues with an open vision and attitude

The distinctive characteristics of Deng Xiaoping's strategic thinking in observing and dealing with various problems with an open vision, an open attitude and an open mind. He repeatedly stressed that today's world is an open world, and the development of any country is inseparable from exchanges and cooperation with other countries. We should boldly absorb and learn from all the achievements of civilization created by human society, and absorb and learn from all the advanced experience of all countries in the world today, including the developed capitalist countries, including the advanced business methods and management methods that reflect the laws of modern socialized production, but at the same time, we cannot mechanically copy the models of other countries.

Understanding the relationship between plan and the market in this way of thinking, Deng Xiaoping concluded: "The planned economy is not equal to socialism, and capitalism also has a plan; the market economy is not equal to capitalism, and socialism also has a market. Both planning and market are economic means." Selected Opts of Deng Xiaoping, Volume 3, page 373.) This fundamentally clarifies the long-standing ideological confusion on the issue of planning and market relations, breaks the barriers of considering the planned economy and the market economy as a symbol of distinguishing the socialist system from the capitalist system, and realizes the successful transformation of China's planned economy system from a socialist market economy system and the realization of reform and opening up. The historic breakthrough has laid the theoretical foundation. For the securities market that people are worried about and controversial, he proposed: "Securities, stock market, whether these things are good or not, whether they are dangerous, whether they are unique to capitalism, and whether socialism can be used? You are allowed to see it, but try it resolutely. Selected Opts of Deng Xiaoping, Volume 3, page 373.)

When dealing with and dealing with changing international problems, Deng Xiaoping is more open-minded and more far-reaching. For example, in the face of the joint sanctions of Western countries led by the United States, he lifted his weights and said lightly: "China's measurement is large enough, and this small disturbance can't blow us down." Deng Xiaoping Selected Ostary, Volume 3, page 359.) He firmly believes that sanctions do not achieve the purpose of curbing China's development, because the People's Republic of China was established in the struggle against imperialism and grew up in blockade, sanctions and isolation. After 40 years of development after the founding of New China, especially after nearly 10 years of reform and opening up, China's strength has been strengthened, and China will not only not collapse, but will also develop more. Proceeding from the long-term interests of the country, he adheres to principles without loss of flexibility, and continues to deal with these countries and build good relations under the premise of safeguarding national sovereignty. He also suggested that politicians in various countries should go beyond the limitations of history, ideology and social system, deal with the relationship between countries from the perspective of the country's own strategic interests and long-term strategic interests, and at the same time respect the interests of each other, not to care about historical grievances, and not to care about the differences between social systems and ideology. (See Deng Xiaoping's Selected Articles, Volume 3, page 330.) In dealing with the relationship with Russia and other CIS countries after the collapse of the Soviet Union, he proposed that no matter what changes in the Soviet Union, we should calmly develop relations with these countries on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, including political relations, and no ideological debates. ( See Deng Xiaoping's Selected Anthops, Volume 3, page 353.) It is under the guidance of Deng Xiaoping's strategic ideas that we have created a relatively relaxed and good international environment for more than 20 years. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, China and Russia established good relations, and China's relations with other countries in the CIS also developed smoothly.

(3) Based on reality and scientifically grasp the key issues of domestic development

Focusing on the present, based on reality, grasping the key points and key issues in the complex affairs is a prominent embodiment of Deng Xiaoping's strategic thinking.

In his later years, Deng Xiaoping put forward a series of important ideas with a scientific attitude of seeking truth from facts and focusing on reform, development, stability and other issues. Starting from the basic national conditions that China is in and will be in the primary stage of socialism for a long time, and China is still the largest developing country in the world, he proposed that in order to let more than one billion people live a good life, and in a hundred years of developed countries have gone through the journey of a few hundred years, we must concentrate on construction. No matter how the international trend changes, "calm down, calm down, calm down again, work hard, and do one thing well" (Vol. 3, page 321 of Deng Xiaoping's Selected Texts). That is to concentrate on modernization. He admitted that the cause of reform and opening up is just in its infancy, because he has no experience, "there are indeed mistakes" in the reform and opening up" and "and the mistakes are not small". (" Selected Opts of Deng Xiaoping, Volume 3, page 312.) But you can't be afraid, you can't waste food because of choking, let alone stop moving forward. Without some experiments, some attempts, including some setbacks and some failed attempts, will definitely fail to achieve our strategic goals. Deng Xiaoping is a politician who is good at learning from historical experience and always preparing and correcting mistakes. He hopes that the new central leadership should also be good at summarizing experience, stick to the right ones, correct the wrong ones quickly, and solve new problems as soon as they come out. The focus of summarizing experience should be on adhering to the reform and opening up. The fundamental one is that the reform and opening up cannot be lost or given up.

To focus on the present is to seize the fleeting opportunities and conditions and accelerate development. In more than four years from 1990 to 1994, Deng Xiaoping talked about the strategic idea of seizing opportunities and accelerating development more than a dozen times. He was soberly aware that history left few opportunities for China. The economic development of some surrounding countries and regions is much faster than ours. If we do not develop or develop too slowly and do not seize the opportunity to take the economy to a higher level, we will lag behind and lose the hearts of the people and the support of the people.

"Development is the hard truth" is an important point emphasized by Deng Xiaoping in his later years. He stressed the need to accelerate development, and also emphasized the mode of development, pointing out: "We should take effective steps to enable our development to be sustainable and potent. (Selected by Deng Xiaoping, Volume 3, page 312.) Development should not only focus on benefits, but also on quality and the protection of the natural environment. At the same time, we should also adhere to the principle of "both hands and hard hands". Not only the economy should go up, but also the social order and social atmosphere should be improved. We should promote the overall progress of society on the basis of economic development.

Deng Xiaoping believed that the fundamental reason for the loss of the ruling status and even disintegration of the Communist Party in the Soviet Union and many countries in Eastern Europe was the division within the Communist Party of these countries. If there is a problem in China, it will also appear in the Communist Party. He pointed out that we must be vigilant about this problem and focus on the construction of the party. He reminded the whole party that corruption is an important reason for the political disturbance in the country. The breeding of corruption has caused some people to lose confidence in the party and the government. If corruption is allowed to develop, it will not only affect the reputation of the party, but also the ruling position of the party. Failure to punish corruption, especially high-level corruption within the party, does risk failure. He asked the new central leadership to grasp major cases with a vigorous and high-pressure situation. We should focus on reform and opening up on the one hand and punish corruption on the other. See Deng Xiaoping's Selected Articles, Volume 3, pages 313 and 314.)

(4) Hook to the future and seriously think about how to ensure that the direction of reform, opening up and modernization will not be shaken.

Strategic thinking is not only an ability, but also a far-reaching responsibility. Deng Xiaoping failed to enter the 21st century, but made strategic plans for major strategic issues related to the success or failure of reform and opening up and modernization, and the future and destiny of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and put forward very important forward-looking thoughts and ideas.

In his later years, Deng Xiaoping was most concerned about how to adhere to the Party's basic line for a long time. Out of a strong sense of responsibility for China's future development, he repeatedly stressed that the basic line of the Party should be adhered not only to this leader, but also to the next and next. In 1992, he exhorted and instructed in the Southern Talks. The most critical sentence was "adhere to this line, policy and policy remain unchanged", and the basic line will not be unwavering for a hundred years!" The army and state power must maintain this road, this system and these policies. Selected Osts of Deng Xiaoping, Volume 3, page 371.)

Deng Xiaoping insisted on seeking truth from facts and did not avoid or hide the problems that appeared. He is keenly aware that after China develops, there will be no fewer problems than when it does not develop. After development, there will be more and more problems and unpredictable things, and there will be more and more risks and challenges. For example, if the "polarization" is not solved well, it will lead to ethnic contradictions, regional contradictions, class contradictions, and even cause social unrest and eventually fall into capitalism. For example, corruption is a long-term social and historical phenomenon, which can be solved in a day or two, but in a month or two. For these possible problems and challenges, it is necessary to find out in time, "Use various means, methods and solutions to solve these problems" (Deng Xiaoping's Chronology (1975-1997) (II), Central Literature Publishing House, 2004 edition, p. 1364).

Deng Xiaoping's decision to develop and open up Pudong in his later years was an important forward-looking strategic deployment. His intention is to promote the economic development of Shanghai and the Yangtze River Delta, take advantage of Shanghai's advantages in talent, technology and management, drive the economic development of the entire Yangtze River Basin, and further influence and promote the reform and opening up of the country. This is an important step to realize the realization of "let some people and some regions get rich first" and finally achieve common prosperity, which he proposed at the beginning of the reform and opening up. It is also a major deployment to realize the "two overall situations" strategic concept of helping the mainland and narrowing the regional gap proposed in the 1980s.

In the early 1980s, Deng Xiaoping summarized the profound lessons of the "Cultural Revolution", considered the successes and failures of the world socialist movement, and came to an important conclusion: the system is the most fundamental, global, stable and long-term guarantee for the development of the socialist cause. In his later years, he further saw the complexity and arduousness of system construction and consolidation, and proposed to take at least 30 years to upgrade the policies that have been effective in practice to the system of the Party and the state in time, and to form a set of more mature and more morphological systems in all aspects; through several generations, more than a dozen generations, and even Dozens of generations have made unremitting efforts to develop and improve the socialist system. Not only that, he also proposed to seriously study the historical task of how to improve and develop the socialist system with Chinese characteristics, which provided ideas for the continuation of the article of socialism with Chinese characteristics.

It has been almost 20 years since Deng Xiaoping left us. Today, from the comparison of history and international observation, we can deeply realize that it is his firm political belief and keen and profound strategic thinking that has made our country overcome difficulties, mastered a lot of strategic initiative in the new century, and have the reliability of the road, theory and institutional confidence of socialism with Chinese characteristics. On the basis. Socialist China once again proved the fallacies of various skepticisms with practice, and constantly improved itself in its development, and continued to break through the waves towards the goal of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation!

[The author is a researcher in the Literature Research Office of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China]